11. What Are The Three Major Activities Of An Operating System In Regard To File Management?
Answer: Three major activities of an operating system in regards to file management are:
- Creating and deleting files.
- Creating and deleting directories.
- Supporting file and directory primitives.
- Mapping files onto secondary storage.
- File backup.
12. Discuss Various Types Of Operating Systems?
Answer: Different types of operating systems available are:
- Real-time Operating System.
- Multi-user and Single-user Operating Systems.
- Multi-tasking and Single-tasking Operating Systems.
- Distributed Operating System.
- Embedded System.
- Mobile Operating System.
- Batch Processing and Interactive Operating Systems.
13. Discuss Real Time Operating Systems?
Answer: Real-time operating systems are used to control machinery, scientific instruments and industrial systems. A very important part of an RTOS is managing the resources of the computer so that a particular operation executes in precisely the same amount of time, every time it occurs.
An RTOS typically has very little user-interface capability, and no end-user utilities, since the system will be a "sealed box" when delivered for use. A very important part of an RTOS manages the resources of the computer so that a particular operation executes in precisely the same amount of time, every time it occurs.
Windows CE, OS-9, Symbian and LynxOS are some of the commonly known real-time operating systems.
14. Discuss Multi-User & Single-User Operating Systems?
Answer: Multi-User operating systems allow multiple users to access a computer system simultaneously. Time-sharing systems can be classified as multi-user systems as they enable a multiple user access to a computer through time sharing.
Single-user operating systems, as opposed to a multi-user operating system, are usable by only one user at a time. Being able to have multiple accounts on a Windows operating system does not make it a multi-user system. Rather, only the network administrator is the real user. But for a Unix-like operating system, it is possible for two users to log in at a time and this capability of the OS makes it a multi-user operating system.
Windows 95, Windows 2000, Mac OS and Palm OS are examples of single-user operating systems.
Unix and OpenVMS are examples of multi-user operating systems.
15. Discuss Multi-Tasking & Single-Tasking Operating Systems?
Answer: When a single program is allowed to run at a time, the system is grouped under the single-tasking system category, while in case the operating system allows for execution of multiple tasks at a time, it is classified as a multi-tasking operating system.
Multi-tasking can be of two types namely, pre-emptive or co-operative. In pre-emptive multitasking, the operating system slices the CPU time and dedicates one slot to each of the programs. Unix-like operating systems such as Solaris and Linux support pre-emptive multitasking. Cooperative multitasking is achieved by relying on each process to give time to the other processes in a defined manner. This kind of multi-tasking is similar to the idea of block multi-threading in which one thread runs till it is blocked by some other event. MS Windows prior to Windows 95 used to support cooperative multitasking.
Palm OS for Palm handheld is a single-task operating system.
Windows 9x OS support multi-tasking. DOS Plus is a relatively less-known multi-tasking operating system. It can support the multi-tasking of a maximum of four CP/M-86 programs.
16. Discuss Distributed Operating System?
17. Discuss Embedded Operating System?
18. Discuss Mobile Operating System?
19. Discuss Batch Processing and Interactive Operating Systems?
20. What are the five major activities of an operating system in regard to file management?
21. List five services provided by an operating system. Explain how each provides convenience to the users. Explain also in which cases it would be impossible for user-level pro-grams to provide these services.
22. Define the essential properties of Batch operating system?
23. Define the essential properties of Interactive operating system?
24. Define the essential properties of Time Sharing operating system?
25. Define the essential properties of Real Time operating system?
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